This report is based on information provided to the EMCDDA by the EU Member States, the candidate country Türkiye, and Norway, in an annual reporting process.
The drug situation in Europe up to 2023
This analysis draws on the latest data available to provide an overview of the current situation and emerging drug issues affecting Europe, with a focus on the year up to the end of 2022. The analysis presented here highlights some developments that may have important implications for drug policy and practitioners in Europe.
Drug supply, production and precursors
An analysis of the supply-related indicators available on the commonly used illicit drugs in the European Union suggests that availability remains high across all substance types. On this page, you can find an overview of drug supply in Europe based on the latest data, supported by the latest time trends in drug seizures and drug law offences, together with 2021 data on drug production and precursor seizures.
Cannabis remains by far the most commonly consumed illicit drug in Europe. On this page, you can find the latest analysis of the drug situation for cannabis in Europe, including prevalence of use, treatment demand, seizures, price and purity, harms and more.
Cocaine is, after cannabis, the second most commonly used illicit drug in Europe, although prevalence levels and patterns of use differ considerably between countries. On this page, you can find the latest analysis of the drug situation for cocaine in Europe, including prevalence of use, treatment demand, seizures, price and purity, harms and more.
Amphetamine, methamphetamine and, more recently, synthetic cathinones are all synthetic central nervous system stimulants available on the drug market in Europe. On this page, you can find the latest analysis of the drug situation for synthetic stimulants in Europe, including prevalence of use, treatment demand, seizures, price and purity, harms and more.
MDMA is a synthetic drug chemically related to the amphetamines, but with somewhat different effects. In Europe, MDMA use has generally been associated with episodic patterns of consumption in the context of nightlife and entertainment settings. On this page, you can find the latest analysis of the drug situation for MDMA in Europe, including prevalence of use, seizures, price and purity and more.
Heroin and other opioids
Heroin remains Europe’s most commonly used illicit opioid and is also the drug responsible for a large share of the health burden attributed to illicit drug consumption. Europe’s opioid problem, however, has evolved over the last decade in ways that have important implications for how we respond to problems in this area. On this page, you can find the latest analysis of the drug situation for heroin and other opioids in Europe, including prevalence of use, treatment demand, seizures, price and purity, harms and more.
New psychoactive substances
The market for new psychoactive substances is characterised by the large number of substances that have appeared in this area and that new compounds continue to be detected each year. On this page, you can find an overview of the drug situation for new psychoactive substances in Europe, supported by seizure data and information from the EU Early Warning System on substances detected for the first time in Europe. New substances mentioned include synthetic cannabinoids, hexahydrocannabinol, synthetic cathinones, new synthetic opioids, benzimidazole opioids.
Alongside the more well-known substances available on illicit drugs markets, a number of other substances with hallucinogenic, anaesthetic, dissociative or depressant properties are used in Europe: these include LSD, hallucinogenic mushrooms, ketamine, GHB and nitrous oxide. On this page, you can find the latest analysis of the situation regarding these substances in Europe, including seizures, prevalence and patterns of use, treatment entry, harms and more.
Injecting drug use
Despite a continued decline in injecting drug use over the past decade in Europe, this behaviour is still responsible for a disproportionate level of health harms. On this page, you can find the latest analysis of injecting drug use in Europe, including key data on prevalence at national level and among clients entering specialised treatment, as well as insights from studies on syringe residue analysis and more.
Drug-related infectious diseases
People who inject drugs are at risk of contracting infections through the sharing of drug use paraphernalia. On this page, you can find the latest analysis of drug-related infectious diseases in Europe, including key data on infections with HIV and hepatitis B and C viruses.
Drug-induced deaths are those that are directly attributable to the use of drugs. On this page, you can find the latest analysis of drug-induced deaths in Europe, including key data on overdose deaths, substances implicated and more.
Opioid agonist treatment
Opioid users represent the largest group undergoing specialised drug treatment, mainly in the form of opioid agonist treatment. On this page, you can find the latest analysis of the provision of opioid agonist treatment in Europe, including key data on coverage, the number of people in treatment, pathways to treatment and more.
Harm reduction encompasses interventions, programmes and policies that seek to reduce the health, social and economic harms of drug use to individuals, communities and societies. On this page, you can find the latest analysis of harm reduction interventions in Europe, including key data on opioid agonist treatment, naloxone programmes, drug consumption rooms and more.
This report is a summary of a comprehensive one published on:
The purpose of the current report is to provide an overview and summary of the European drug situation up to the end of 2022. All grouping, aggregates and labels therefore reflect the situation based on the available data in 2022 in respect to the composition of the European Union and the countries participating in EMCDDA reporting exercises. However, not all data will cover the full period. Due to the time needed to compile and submit data, many of the annual national data sets included here are from the reference year January to December 2021.
Analysis of trends is based only on those countries providing sufficient data to describe changes over the period specified. The reader should also be aware that monitoring patterns and trends in a hidden and stigmatised behaviour like drug use is both practically and methodologically challenging. For this reason, multiple sources of data are used for the purposes of analysis in this report.
Although considerable improvements can be noted, both nationally and in respect to what is possible to achieve in a European level analysis, the methodological difficulties in this area must be acknowledged. Caution is therefore required in interpretation, in particular when countries are compared on any single measure.
Caveats relating to the data are to be found in the online Statistical Bulletin, which contains detailed information on methodology, qualifications on analysis and comments on the limitations in the information set available. Information is also available there on the methods and data used for European level estimates, where interpolation may be used.